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Judge Can Be Member of N.Y. ACLU Affiliate, but not one of its Directors



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From a decision of the N.Y. Advisory Committee on Judicial Ethics, handed down on Jan. 27 however simply posted on Westlaw:

The inquiring full-time decide asks whether it is ethically permissible to serve on the board of administrators of the New York Civil Liberties Union (NYCLU). Because the group’s web site explains:

Our mission is to defend and promote the elemental rules and values embodied within the Invoice of Rights, the U.S. Structure, and the New York Structure, together with freedom of speech and faith, and the best to privateness, equality and due technique of legislation, with explicit consideration to the pervasive and chronic harms of racism. The NYCLU works towards its mission by advocating for all New Yorkers to have equal entry to alternatives and the equal potential to take part in authorities choices that have an effect on them. This contains planning and improvement choices, which traditionally have excluded or deliberately discriminated in opposition to Black, Indigenous, and Latinx New Yorkers.

To advance this mission, the NYCLU “works within the courts as a public-interest legislation agency, bringing constitutional check instances in state and federal courtroom” and engages in “[l]egislative advocacy” as a part of an “interdisciplinary method to defending civil liberties, which additionally contains litigation, group organizing, and communications.”

A decide should at all times keep away from even the looks of impropriety (see 22 NYCRR 100.2) and should at all times act to advertise public confidence within the judiciary’s integrity and impartiality (see 22 NYCRR 100.2[A]). A decide could interact in extra-judicial actions that don’t (1) solid doubt on the decide’s capability to behave impartially as a decide; (2) detract from the dignity of judicial workplace; or (3) intervene with the correct efficiency of judicial duties and are usually not incompatible with judicial workplace (see 22 NYCRR 100.4[A][1]-[3]). Topic to those and different limitations, a decide could also be a member of a corporation dedicated to the advance of the legislation, the authorized system or the administration of justice or of a not-for-profit civic group (see 22 NYCRR 100.4[C][3]). Furthermore, a full-time decide could ordinarily function an officer or director of such a corporation, whether it is unlikely to “be engaged commonly in adversary proceedings in any courtroom” (22 NYCRR 100.4[C][3][a][ii]) or to “be engaged in proceedings that ordinarily may come earlier than the decide” (22 NYCRR 100.4[C][3][a][i]).

Now we have suggested {that a} decide could also be an everyday member of the NYCLU, as this group engages in sure actions by which judges could take part, comparable to educating the general public in regards to the Invoice of Rights (see Opinion 98-101). Nonetheless, because the NYCLU engages in in depth lobbying, advocacy and litigation, a decide “ought to take care that such membership doesn’t contain the decide in being related to issues which are the topic of litigation or public controversy” (id.).

We attain a special conclusion regarding service on the NYCLU’s board of administrators. As defined in Opinion 14-29 (citations omitted):

As a result of a decide’s public involvement in extra-judicial issues of considerable public controversy could increase questions on a decide’s potential to behave impartially within the efficiency of judicial features, the Committee has suggested {that a} decide shouldn’t serve on the board of administrators of sure doubtlessly controversial organizations, although he/she could also be an everyday member. In essence, taking a management function in such organizations could publicly affiliate the decide with organizational positions on issues of public controversy, in a manner that easy membership doesn’t.

On this regard, we notice the NYCLU incessantly takes positions on issues of considerable public controversy and engages in lobbying and advocacy to assist them. Furthermore, the NYCLU commonly participates in adversarial litigation, whether or not as an amicus or as a celebration, in furtherance of its mission. This precludes a full-time decide from serving as an officer or director of the group, even when such instances are unlikely to return earlier than the decide (see 22 NYCRR 100.4[C][3][a][ii] [full-time judge may not serve as officer, director, trustee, or non-legal advisor of an entity if it will likely “be engaged regularly in adversary proceedings in any court”] [emphasis added]).

Accordingly, the inquiring decide could not serve on the NYCLU’s board of administrators however could also be an everyday member, topic to typically relevant limitations on judicial speech and conduct.