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William Kraft, a percussionist, composer, conductor and educator who performed an extended and indispensable position in making Los Angeles a world capital of latest music, died Saturday at USC Verdugo Hills Hospital. His spouse, composer Joan Huang, says the trigger was coronary heart failure. He was 98.
Kraft was the proper percussionist on the proper time in the proper place. As a composer, he embraced the distinctive music alternatives that the world of percussion introduced. As a performer, he took full benefit of the numerous alternatives distinctive to the musical life in Los Angeles, which included a decadeslong profession with the Los Angeles Philharmonic as percussionist, principal timpanist, composer-in-residence and affiliate conductor. He was the founding conductor of the L.A. Phil New Music Group, which, with its Inexperienced Umbrella concert events, helped rework the notion of what a contemporary orchestra might turn out to be.
Within the Nineteen Sixties and Seventies, through the heyday of Zubin Mehta’s L.A. Phil music directorship, Kraft’s timpani have been an unmissable element in what turned Mehta’s vibrant orchestral “L.A. sound.” On the identical time, Kraft concerned himself within the wider L.A. new music scene. He was a daily on the Monday Night Concert events and the Ojai Music Pageant. He turned Igor Stravinsky’s go-to percussionist. He befriended and gave the premieres of main works by most of the main avant-gardists of his time.
But Kraft was additionally completely satisfied to benefit from all Hollywood needed to supply. Amongst his a number of movie and tv scores, he delivered an imposing “Rocky Mountain” symphony of a soundtrack for the 1978 catastrophe function movie “Avalanche” that added spectacular stature to its stars, Rock Hudson and Mia Farrow.
The identical yr and on the different excessive, Kraft translated the fragile results of sunshine and shadow mirrored by means of the branches of a magnolia tree right into a quiet piano piece, “Translucence,” that represented what he favored to name his American Impressionist aspect. He had an American Expressionist aspect, as nicely, that he was not as wanting to acknowledge.
The infinite number of percussion made all this attainable. He grew up within the period when percussion was evolving from primarily offering punctuating sound results within the orchestra to turning into solo musical discourse in its personal proper. For Kraft, percussion devices produced the sorts of sounds that shade our existence, whereas the emphasis on rhythm might illuminate interpersonal musical interactions. In his position as timpanist within the L.A. Phil, he offered the heartbeat of the orchestra, and in his politically themed works, he expanded that notion to having percussion signify the heartbeat of a simply society.
In Kraft’s many solo, chamber and orchestral works, together with numerous concertos for percussion soloists, he invariably put percussion entrance and heart. Percussion, within the meantime, often put the timpanist entrance and heart of the L.A. Phil. Kraft whacking away firstly of Mehta’s 1968 L.A. recording of Richard Strauss’ “Additionally Sprach Zarathustra” enticed numerous counterculture faculty college students on the time to wear down their LPs.
“You can’t think about what it meant to face there,” the celebrated British conductor Simon Rattle, who was educated as a timpanist, stated of his first time conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1979, “and — ‘Oh, my God’ — it’s Invoice Kraft!”
“He was a childhood idol of mine,” Rattle continued in a phone name from his residence, “an unsung grasp who understood the essence of percussion.
“And one of many sweetest individuals on the planet.”
William Kraft was born Sept. 6, 1923, in Chicago. His mother and father have been Russian émigrés who had modified their title from Kashareftsky to Kraft and who moved to California when their son was 3. Kraft’s early coaching was in piano and percussion at San Diego State School (now College) and UCLA. Throughout World Struggle II, he served abroad within the army as a pianist, drummer and arranger in military bands, and he briefly performed in jazz bands after the struggle earlier than embarking on a critical musical profession. That led him to review conducting with the younger Leonard Bernstein at Tanglewood in 1948, composition with a number of famous composers (together with the West Coast maverick Henry Cowell, one of many first composers to write down for percussion ensemble) at Columbia College and timpani on the Juilliard College.
Kraft started his profession as an orchestra percussionist with the Dallas Symphony in 1954 after which joined the L.A. Phil a yr later. This was a considerably lackluster interval for the L.A. Phil, the final season of the conservative American music director Alfred Wallenstein, adopted by a number of directionless years till Mehta took over.
However Kraft rapidly turned a mainstay of the otherwise-burgeoning musical lifetime of town. In 1956, he enlisted different members of the L.A. Phil percussion part to type the First Percussion Quartet, so named as a result of it was the primary such ensemble. Later enlarged, it turned the Los Angeles Percussion Ensemble and Chamber Gamers and promoted a variety of latest and up to date percussion music by Edgard Varèse, John Cage, Lou Harrison, Cowell, Kraft and lots of others.
On the Monday Night Concert events, he performed within the American premieres of Pierre Boulez’s seminal “Le Marteau sans maître,” nailing the rhythmic complexity that few different percussionists might handle to Boulez’s satisfaction, and Karlheinz Stockhausen’s “Zyklus,” which turned probably the most well-known percussion items of the second half of the twentieth century. Stravinsky selected the percussionist for his recording of “The Soldier’s Story” with narration by Jeremy Irons. Stravinsky turned a seminal affect on Kraft’s personal music.
In the meantime, on the L.A. Phil, as soon as Mehta started, he was fast to nominate Kraft principal timpanist. Mehta was additionally drawn to Kraft’s music, he says from Tel Aviv, the place he’s conducting the Israel Philharmonic. In 1968, Mehta premiered Kraft’s Concerto for 4 Percussion Soloists & Orchestra, a percussion phantasmagoria so colourful that it proved successful regardless of its many Modernist components.
“We have been on the identical wavelength musically and politically,” Mehta says, recalling his as soon as having enlisted Kraft to assist him devise a particular live performance in reminiscence of Malcolm X after his assassination in 1965. The concept was to fee works, every marking a chapter in Malcolm X’s life, from 5 outstanding African American composers.
“The board was very conservative,” Mehta says, however he and Kraft have been defiant. To Mehta’s disappointment, although, he says they weren’t in a position to persuade the composers to simply accept the commissions, so fraught and dangerous was the political local weather. However Mehta later commissioned a brand new piece from Kraft that mirrored the continuing protests towards the Vietnam Struggle and the racial unrest within the spring and summer time of 1967.
Kraft’s daring, offended “Contextures: Riots — Decade ’60” had its first efficiency on April 4, 1968, on the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion solely hours after Kraft realized of Martin Luther King Jr.‘s assassination that very same day. On the spot, Kraft added a brand new ending that quotes “We Shall Overcome,” performed by an offstage jazz band that’s used as a part of the orchestral work. In one other innovation, the “Contextures” efficiency included two summary movies that contextualized the period.
Together with composing, Kraft steadily developed his conducting expertise, primarily main new works. In 1966, he performed the L.A. Phil in what turned a historic Duke Ellington program on the Hollywood Bowl, with Ellington because the soloist in his piano concerto “New World A-Comin’.” From 1969 to 1972, Kraft served because the orchestra’s assistant conductor in addition to its principal timpanist.
In 1981, after 18 years as principal timpanist, the L.A. Phil appoint Kraft the primary L.A. Phil composer-in-residence. He and author Barbara Kraft determined to divorce the yr earlier than after 30 years of marriage. Kraft offered his percussion devices and determined to see if he might survive as a full-time composer. For the subsequent 4 years, moreover composing, he shaped and led the L.A. Phil New Music Group, which started the orchestra’s devoted sequence of latest music concert events, an concept that has turn out to be broadly adopted by numerous orchestras in America and Europe.
Kraft ended his 30-year employment with the L.A. Phil in 1985, the yr André Previn turned music director, however his affiliation with the orchestra continued by means of the remainder of his life. Previn premiered and recorded “Contextures II: The Last Beast,” a sequel to Kraft’s first “Contextures” that incorporates a solo soprano and tenor, together with a boys choir, and makes use of a choice of anti-war texts from historic to fashionable instances. His works continued to be performed through the music directorships of Esa-Pekka Salonen and Gustavo Dudamel.
“I immediately favored Invoice for a lot of causes,” Salonen, who made his L.A. Phil debut in 1984, stated Sunday upon studying of Kraft’s demise.
“He was a type of mental, within the 12-tone strategies however with out the style of paper, as a result of he was a musician who had carried out a number of the thorniest items. He all the time had the respect of the performers. They knew that he knew that they knew.”
For Salonen, who arrived in L.A. as one thing of a younger, thorny European Modernist composer himself, that was a strikingly refreshing notion. As well as, the New Music Group was no small attraction for him to later settle for the invitation to turn out to be the L.A. Phil music director in 1992. The L.A. Phil celebrated Kraft’s upcoming eightieth birthday in 2003 by commissioning a Concerto for English Horn and Orchestra, “The Grand Encounter,” written for the orchestra’s English horn participant, Carolyn Hove, and performed by Salonen. Within the Dudamel period, composer John Adams, the L.A. Phil inventive chair, performed and recorded Kraft’s Timpani Concerto No. 1 from 1992.
Salonen sees Kraft as a composer who on some stage held on to his progressive roots, “however in his later years, his palate turned extra in depth. He obtained freer and freer as he obtained older, which is a pleasant trajectory.” That trajectory is most completely adopted by means of Kraft’s “Encounters” sequence.
Starting with a solo tuba piece written in 1966 for the “Encounters” new music live performance sequence on the Pasadena Artwork Museum, Kraft went on to create 15 chamber music scores over the subsequent 42 years that explored the interactions of soloists or small ensembles with percussion and generally electronics. In them, he checked out percussion in its many features, and thru them, life and spirituality and nature and growing old.
“Encounters III” is a musical duet between trumpet and percussion. “Encounters VII: Blessed Are the Peacemakers” for chamber ensemble and percussion makes use of the opening of anti-war poems translated into morse code as rhythmic impulse. The ultimate “Encounters XV,” for guitar and percussion and given its premiere by Southwest Chamber Music on the Colburn College in 2008, noticed the 85-year-old composer in quiet meditation, its sounds meant for lingering, not battle.
Southwest launched a recording of all however the eleventh of the sequence the next yr that, taken as a complete, is the autobiography in music that Kraft by no means gave us in phrases. If he had, that might have been a historical past of the musical life in L.A. over greater than six a long time.
After leaving the L.A. Phil, Kraft started one other profession, in training. He taught at UCLA, the place he met Joan Huang, his future spouse, and have become chairman of the division of musical composition at UC Santa Barbara. However most of his time remained dedicated to composition. Lots of the main American orchestras, together with ensembles in Israel, Korea, China, Australia, Russia and Europe, commissioned him to create percussion-extravagant orchestral scores. In 2005, Michael Tilson Thomas, one other longtime Kraft colleague, and the San Francisco Symphony premiered a Second Timpani Concerto, which, alongside together with his first, has already turn out to be a repertory piece for timpanists in all places.
However Kraft additionally caught the eye of such divergent commissioners because the Kronos Quartet, the U.S. Air Power Band and United Airways. For the latter, he wrote Modernist music to accompany vacationers as they wheeled their baggage and lugged their backpacks by means of the kaleidoscopically lit United Airways tunnel at Chicago’s O’Hare airport. Though United ultimately changed Kraft with Gershwin, for a interval the tunnel turned a purpose for brand spanking new music lovers to attempt to change planes in O’Hare when possible.
By means of all of it, Kraft remained a presence in L.A. as much as his final days. He was given rousing ovations when his music was carried out, whether or not by downtown new music teams or on the Music Heart. He was all the time surrounded by well-wishers and all the time had a narrative or 10 to inform in regards to the previous.
The ultimate two concert events he attended have been as not too long ago as January to listen to Tilson Thomas guest-conduct the L.A. Phil and to catch its Ellington celebration, which included “New World A-Comin’.” Huang says that she performed a recording of the Ellington/Strayhorn “Take the A Prepare” for him within the hospital throughout his final hours.
William Kraft is survived by Joan Huang, his spouse; his son, Patrick Kraft; daughter Jennifer Slawta; six grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.